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Ancient Rome - Index

Roman Index / Timeline Italy before the Romans Romulus and Remus Birth and Rise of Rome Early Roman Republic
The Twelve Tables Punic Wars Late Roman Republic Consuls of the Republic Trouble in the Republic
Julius Caesar Julius Caesar Play and Brutus Trial Antony and Cleopatra Octavian Late Republic Poetry
Early Roman Empire Caesar Augustus Basics of Christianity Pontius Pilate The New Testament
Bishops of Rome / Popes Late Roman Empire Attack of the Barbarians Roman Emperors Roman Emperors List

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
16 January 27 BC to 19 August AD 14 Augustus
19 August 14 to 16 March 37 Tiberius
18 March 37 to 24 January 41 Gaius Caligula Assassinated
24 January 41 to 13 October 54 Claudius Assassinated by poisoning
October 54 to 11 June 68 Nero Committed suicide

'Later Claudian' Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
8 June 68 to 15 January 69 Galba Murdered by Otho;
see: Year of the four Emperors
15 January 69 to 16 April 69 Otho Committed suicide;
see: Year of the four Emperors
2 January 69 to 20 December 69 Vitellius Co-Emperor; murdered in the Forum;
see: Year of the four Emperors

Flavian Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
1 July 69 to 24 June 79 Vespasian AD70: Pontifex Maximus Pater Patriae
co-Emperor;
see: Year of the four Emperors
24 June 79 to 13 September 81 Titus Flavius
14 September 81 to 18 September 96 Domitian Assassinated

Nervan-Antonian Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
18 September 96 to 27 January 98 Nerva  
28 January 98 to 7 August 117 Trajan
11 August 117 to 10 July 138 Hadrian
10 July 138 to 7 March 161 Antoninus Pius
7 March 161 to 17 March 180 Marcus Aurelius
7 March 161 to March 169 Lucius Verus
175 to 175 Avidius Cassius Usurper; proclaimed Emperor: ruled in Egypt and Syria; murdered by a centurion
177 to 31 December 192 Commodus Co-Emperor with Marcus Aurelius to 17 March 180;
Murdered: strangled by a wrestler

Severan Dynasty, African, Asian and Syrian Emperors

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
1 January 193 to 28 March 193 Pertinax recognized as Emperor by Septimius Severus; murdered by soldiers on the Palatine
28 March 193 to 1 June 193 Didius Julianus Sentenced to death by the Senate; murdered on the Palatine
9 April 193 to 4 February 211 Septimius Severus
193 to 194/195 Pescennius Niger Claimant: Emperor in Syria
193/195 to 197 Clodius Albinus Claimant: Emperor in Britain
198 to 4 February 211 Caracalla
209 to 4 February 211 Geta Murdered by Caracalla
11 April 217 to June 218 Macrinus Executed
May 217 to June 218 Diadumenian Executed
June 218 to 222 Heliogabalus Assassinated
13 March 222 to ?March 235 Alexander Severus Pontifex Maximus
Assassinated

Rulers during the Crisis of the Third Century

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
February/March 235 to March/April 238 Maximinus Thrax Murdered by troops
earlyJanuary/March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian I Committed suicide
earlyJanuary March 238 to lateJanuary/April 238 Gordian II Killed in battle
earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Pupienus Maximus Murdered by the Praetorians
earlyFebruary 238 to earlyMay 238 Balbinus Murdered by the Praetorians
May 238 to February 244 Gordian III Murdered
240 to 240 Sabinianus Proclaimed himself Emperor; defeated in battle
February 244 to September/October 249 Philip the Arab Killed in battle by Decius
248 to 248 Pacantius Proclaimed himself Emperor; murdered by his own soldiers
248 to 248 Jotapian Claimant
248 to 248 Silbannacus Usurper
249 to June 251 Decius Killed in battle
249 to 252 Priscus Proclaimed himself Emperor in the Eastern provinces
250 to 250 Licinianus Claimant
early251 to 1 July 251 Herennius Etruscus Killed in battle
251 to 251 Hostilian
June 251 to August 253 Gallus Murdered by his own soldiers
July 251 to August 253 Volusianus Murdered by his own soldiers
August 253 to October 253 Aemilian Murdered by his own soldiers
253 to June 260 Valerian I Co-Emperor with Gallienus; captured by Persians: died in captivity
253 to September 268 Gallienus Co-Emperor with Valerian 253 to 260; murdered
258 or June 260 Ingenuus Proclaimed himself Emperor
260 Regalianus Proclaimed Emperor
260 to 261 Macrianus Major Proclaimed Emperor; defeated and killed in battle
260 to 261 Macrianus Minor Proclaimed Emperor; defeated and killed in battle
260 to 261 Quietus Claimant
261 to 261 or 262 Mussius Aemilianus Proclaimed Emperor
268 to 268 Aureolus Proclaimed himself Emperor; surrendered to Claudius II Gothicus

Illyrian Emperors

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
268 to August 270 Claudius II Gothicus Died of plague
August 270 to September 270 Quintillus Co-Emperor with Aurelian; committed suicide
August 270 to 275 Aurelian Co-Emperor with Quintillus; murdered by the Praetorian Guard
271 to 271 Septimius Proclaimed Emperor in Dalmatia; killed by his own soldiers
November/December 275 to July 276 Tacitus Murdered
July 276 to September 276 Florianus Murdered
July 276 to lateSeptember 282 Probus Murdered by his own soldiers
280 Saturninus Claimant: forced by his soldiers; proclaimed himself Emperor; killed by his soldiers
280 Proculus Claimant: acceding to the request of the people of Lugdunum; killed by Probus
280 Bonosus Proclaimed himself Emperor; defeated by Probus and committed suicide
September 282 to July/August 283 Carus
spring 283 to summer 285 Carinus Co-Emperor with Numerianus; Murdered
July/August 283 to November 284 Numerian Co-Emperor with Carinus

Tetrarchy

'Collegiate Emperors' of the Constantine Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
20 November 284 to 1 May 305 Diocletian Co-Emperor with Maximian; Abdicated
1 May 305 to 25 July 306 Constantius I Chlorus
1 May 305 to May 311 Galerius Co-Emperor with Severus II
1 April 286 to 1 May 305 Maximian Co-Emperor with Diocletian; forced to abdicate
August 306 to 16 September 307 Severus II Co-Emperor with Galerius
307 to 308 Maximian Abdicated
28 October 306 to 28 October 312 Maxentius Drowned on order of Constantine I The Great
de jure: 307, de facto 312 to 22 May 337 Constantine I The Great
308 Domitius Alexander Proclaimed himself Emperor
11 November 308 to 19 December 324 Licinius Co-Emperor; abdicated; (executed early 325)
1 May 310 to July/August 313 Maximinus Daia Co-Emperor; committed suicide
337 to 340 Constantine II Co-Emperor; killed in battle
337 to 361 Constantius II Co-Emperor
337 to 350 Constans I Co-Emperor; killed by Magnentius
January 350 to 11 August 353 Magnentius Co-ruler; committed suicide
c.350 Vetriano Proclaimed himself Emperor
c.350 Nepotianus Proclaimed himself Emperor
November 361 to June 363 Julian the Apostate Killed in battle
363 to 17 February 364 Jovian Died accidentally

Valentinian Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
26 February 364 to 17 November 375 Valentinian I
24 August 367 to 383 Gratian Assassinated
375 to 385 Valentinian II Deposed; died in suspicious circumstances
383 to 388 Magnus Maximus Rival in the west; deposed and executed
c.386 to 388 Flavius Victor Fate uncertain
392 to 394 Eugenius Usurper in the west; killed in battle

Theodosian Dynasty

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
388 to 17 January 395 Theodosius I the Great Co-Emperor; Emperor in the east from 379
23 January 393 to 395 Honorius Becoming Emperor in the west

Western Empire

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
395 to 15 August 423 Honorius Co-Emperor with Constantius III (421)
409 to 410 Priscus Attalus Claimant
414 to 415 Priscus Attalus Claimant
409 to 411 Constantine III Claimant
411 to 412 Jovinus Claimant
421 to 421 Constantius III Co-Emperor with Honorius
423 to 425 Joannes Claimant
425 to 16 March 455 Valentinian III
17 March 455 to 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus
June 455 to 17 October 456 Avitus
457 to 2 August 461 Majorian Abdicated
461 to 465 Libius Severus
12 April 467 to 11 July 472 Anthemius Executed
July 472 to 2 November 472 Olybrius
5 March 473 to June 474 Glycerius Abdicated
June 474 to August 475 Julius Nepos Emperor in the West until 475, Emperor in Dalmatia 477 to May 480; fled; murdered
31 October 475 to August 476 Romulus Augustus
(Romulus Augustulus)
Deposed by Odoacer; fate unknown

Eastern Empire

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
26 February 364 to 17 November 375 Valentinian I Co-Emperor with Valens 364 to 378
28 March 365 to 9 August 366 Valens Killed in battle
September 365 to 27 May 366 Procopius Usurper; executed by Valens
24 August 367 to 383 Gratianus co-Emperor with Valentinian II (375 to 392); assassinated
19 January 379 to 17 January 395 Theodosius I The Great Co-Emperor in the west from 388
383 to January 395 Arcadius Becoming Byzantine Emperor January 395

Gallic Empire 260 to 274

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
260 to 268 Postumus
269 to 269 Laelianus
269 to 269 Marius
269 to 271 Victorinus
270 to 271 Domitianus Proclaimed Emperor of the Gallic Empire
271 to 274 Tetricus I

Britannic Empire 286 to 297

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
286 to 293 Carausius
293 to 297 Allectus

Eastern Empire

DATES OF REIGN EMPEROR NOTES
395 to 408 Arcadius
408 to 450 Theodosius II
450 to 457 Marcian
457 to 474 Leo I
474 to 474 Leo II
474 to 491 Zeno
475 to 476 Basiliscus


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