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Ancient Greece - Index

Greek Index / Timeline Aegean Sea Civilizations Trojan War Greek Dark Ages Greek Archaic Period
Greek Gods Greek Classical Period - I Persian War Greek Classical Period - II Peloponnesian War
Philosophers Tragedy - Oedipus Greek Classical Period - III Alexander the Great Greek Hellenistic Period

1100 - 750 BC - Greek Dark Ages
1100-900 BC Sub-Minoan / Sub-Mycenaean Period and the Early Iron Age (Protogeometric Period)

A period of severe economic and cultural depression eventually gave way to ever-increasing recovery.  Colonies from mainland Greece and the nearby islands settled on the west coast of Asia Minor and the north coast of the Aegean.   Strong trade links with the Near East were again established, and there was a gradual increase in wealth.  Craftsmanship again became skilled.

  • Protogeometric pottery shows a revolution in artwork from Mycenaean art



Kings ruled small areas

  • Homer Odyssey, 7, p. 114. Homer describes the royal palace of King Alcinous, Queen Arete, and Princess Nausicaa of Phaeacia. Homer writes, "a kind of radiance, like that of the sun or moon, lit up the high-roofed halls of the great king. Walls of bronze, topped with blue enamel tiles, ran round... The interior of the well-built mansion was guarded by golden doors hung on posts of silver which sprang from the bronze threshold."

Kings claimed descendence from Zeus

  • Homer Iliad, 2, p. 42. Homer traces King Agamemnon's royal authority back to Zeus.
  • Homer Iliad, 2, p. 52-63. Homer lists the chieftains of the Trojans and their accompanying armies and navies. He also states their relationships with Zeus and the various gods.

900-750 BC

Geometric Period
  The population dramatically increased and proto-urban life re-emerged, bringing with it overcrowding and political tensions. The Greeks moved to new lands to the east and west where they founded commercial trading posts and colonies.

Written language, lost with the passing of the Mycenaean civilization, re-emerged with the adoption of the Semitic alphabetic script, encountered through contacts with the Phoenicians. It is probably in this same period that the epic poems of Homer, such as the Iliad, became widely known and were recorded.


  • Geometric pottery (Dipylon style) contains complex decorations

800 BC

Homer writes the Iliad

776 BC

First Olympic Games held

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